The seat of the mixed arbitral tribunals shall be Constantinople. If the number and nature of the cases so warrant, the Governments concerned have the right to establish a seat in any court or in several additional sections whose seat is located anywhere. Each of those sections shall be composed of a Vice-President and two members appointed in accordance with Article 92(2), (3), (four) and (five). The Turkish government, in agreement with the other contracting powers, released the German government from its commitment during the war to accept Turkish government banknotes at a certain exchange rate as a means of payment for goods to be exported from Germany to Turkey after the war. Without prejudice to the general provisions of Article 27, Turkey recognizes the definitive abolition of all rights and privileges enjoyed in Libya by the Treaty of Lausanne of 18 October 1912 and the instruments associated with it. These measures are drawn up by special committees composed equally of representatives of the Turkish Government and representatives of each of the minorities concerned. In the event of disagreement, the Turkish Government and the Council of the League of Nations shall appoint by mutual agreement an arbitrator chosen from among European lawyers. The official record of the deliberations shows that Curzon is working closely with Maurice Bompard (France) and Marquis Garroni (Italy) to convince İsmet of the need to soften his insistence on the “independence and sovereignty” of the new Turkey. Like Venizelos, İsmet was nervously aware that he had to keep the support of a skeptical government “at home.” The couple deserves a lot of credit (or guilt, depending on their opinions) for the agreement signed in January 1923 on the “segregation” of the Greek and Turkish populations. This has forced 1.5 million people and added to the hundreds of thousands of Balkan Muslims who have been “unmixed” over the past decade and sent east by less formal means.

Among many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States, the Chester Concession. In the United States, the treaty was rejected by several groups, including the Committee Against the Treaty of Lausanne (COLT), and on January 18, 1927, the United States Senate refused to ratify the treaty by 50 votes to 34, six votes less than the two-thirds required by the Constitution. [20] As a result, Turkey cancelled the concession. [9] In 1923, the agreement was ratified after several rounds. With the expiration of this historic agreement in 2023, myths about the restoration of the former Ottoman Empire have never been erased by the continued ambition of the Turks, known for their expansion plans, colonization and nationalism. This Section shall not apply to cases between Japan and Turkey which would fall within the jurisdiction of the Joint Arbitral Tribunal under the provisions of this Agreement. These matters will be settled by mutual agreement between the two governments. If no agreement is reached between the two Governments within the time limit, the dispute shall be submitted to the Council of the League of Nations. In May 1919, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the victor of Gallipoli, was appointed commander of the army by the sultan. By July 1919, Atatürk had left the army and led a nationalist movement against the occupying power with the intention of ending the Ottoman sultanate and establishing a democratic, secular nation-state free from outside interference. Many Turks were angry with the treaty and wanted to end the Ottoman government. They saw the conditions as punishment, arguing that the Turkish people were not responsible for the Ottomans` support for Germany.

In April 1920, he formed a Grand National Assembly. The war began with Greece, triggered by the territorial concessions of Sèvres and with the French on the other side of the Syrian-Turkish border, in which Atatürk won a series of victories. However, the British maintained their position. The sultanate was abolished in November 1922. Unwilling to take part in protracted hostilities, the Allies convened a peace conference in Lausanne in November 1922. İsmet İnönü was Turkey`s chief negotiator. Lord Curzon, then British Foreign Secretary, was the Allies` chief negotiator, while Eleftherios Venizelos negotiated on behalf of Greece. The negotiations lasted several months. The peace conference was opened on 20 November 1922 and, after much debate, was interrupted by Turkish demonstrations on 4 February 1923.

After its reopening on April 23 and after further protests by Turks and tense debates, the treaty was signed on July 24 following eight months of arduous negotiations. The delegation on behalf of the Allies included negotiators such as US Admiral Mark L. Bristol, who served as US High Commissioner and defended Turkey`s efforts. With the entry into force of this Treaty, the state of peace between the British Empire, the France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania and the Serbo-Croatian-Slovenian State on the one hand and Turkey on the other, as well as between their respective nationals, shall be definitively restored. Official relations shall be resumed on both sides and diplomatic and consular representatives in the respective territories shall be treated in accordance with the general principles of international law, without prejudice to any future agreement. Upon the entry into force of this Treaty and subject to its provisions, the following multilateral treaties, agreements and understandings of an economic or technical nature between Turkey and those of the other Contracting Parties shall enter into force again: Within one month of the final determination of the amount of the pension referred to in Article 47, the Commission shall meet in Paris to determine the arrangements for the distribution of the share capital of the Ottoman public debt in accordance with Article 47. Part A of the table annexed to this section. This allocation shall be based on the shares fixed for the distribution of pensions, taking into account the conditions of the loan agreements and the provisions of this Section. The Commission referred to in paragraph 1 shall be composed of a representative of the Turkish Government, a representative of the Ottoman Public Debt Council, a representative of the debt other than the single debt and the Turkish Lots; Each of the Governments concerned also has the right to appoint a representative.

Any matter on which the Commission may not be able to reach agreement shall be referred to the arbitrator referred to in Article 47(4). Where, following the establishment of new frontiers, a rail link between two parts of the same country crosses another country, or where a branch line from one country has its terminus in another, the working conditions shall apply, subject to special rules, in so far as they concern traffic between the two countries, to be laid down in an agreement to be concluded between the railway administrations concerned. If such authorities cannot agree on the terms of this Agreement, those terms shall be decided by arbitration. In the absence of provisions to the contrary, the hydraulic system (sanitation, flooding, irrigation, drainage or similar matters) of a State shall depend, as a result of the establishment of a new frontier, on work carried out in the territory of another State or if a use is made in the territory of one State as a result of pre-war use of hydroelectricity or hydroelectricity from the territory of another State, an agreement shall be concluded between the States concerned in order to safeguard the interests and rights of each State. (f) Contracts, for any purpose, are concluded between natural or legal persons and the State, provinces, municipalities or other similar legal persons entrusted with administrative tasks. .